Debt Relief Agency Disclosures to an Assisted Person
Section 527 of the Bankruptcy Code requires a Debt Relief Agency to provide an assisted person with the following:
1. A copy of the notice prepared by the clerk of the Bankruptcy Court, in accordance with the requirements of § 342(b), which is attached hereto and which contains:
- a brief description of
- Chapters 7, 11, 12, and 13 and the general purpose, benefits, and costs of proceeding under each of those chapters; and
- the types of services available from credit counseling agencies; and
- statements specifying that
- a person who knowingly and fraudulently conceals assets or makes a false oath or statement under penalty of perjury in connection with a case under this title shall be subject to fine, imprisonment, or both; and
- all information supplied by a debtor in connection with a case under this title is subject to examination by the Attorney General.
2. The following disclosures are required by § 527(a)(2), which advises an assisted person that:
- all information that the assisted person is required to provide with a petition and thereafter during a case under this title is required to be complete, accurate, and truthful;
- all assets and all liabilities are required to be completely and accurately disclosed in the documents filed to commence the case, and the replacement value of each asset as defined in § 506 must be stated in those documents where requested after reasonable inquiry to establish such value;
- current monthly income, the amounts specified in section 707(b)(2), and, in a case under Chapter 13 of this title, disposable income (determined in accordance with § 707(b)(2)) are required to be stated after reasonable inquiry; and
- information that an assisted person provides during his or her case may be audited pursuant to this title, and failure to provide such information may result in dismissal of the case under this title or other sanction, including a criminal sanction.
NOTICE TO INDIVIDUAL CONSUMER DEBTOR
UNDER § 342(b) OF THE BANKRUPTCY CODE
In accordance with § 342(b) of the Bankruptcy Code, this notice: (1) Describes briefly the services available from credit counseling services; (2) Describes briefly the purposes, benefits and costs of the four types of bankruptcy proceedings you may commence; and (3) Informs you about bankruptcy crimes and notifies you that the Attorney General may examine all information you supply in connection with a bankruptcy case. You are cautioned that bankruptcy law is complicated and not easily described. Thus, you may wish to seek the advice of an attorney to learn of your rights and responsibilities should you decide to file a petition. Court employees cannot give you legal advice.
1. Services Available from Credit Counseling Agencies
With limited exceptions, § 109(h) of the Bankruptcy Code requires that all individual debtors who file for bankruptcy relief on or after October 17, 2005, receive a briefing that outlines the available opportunities for credit counseling and provides assistance in performing a budget analysis. The briefing must be given within 180 days before the bankruptcy filing. The briefing may be provided individually or in a group (including briefings conducted by telephone or on the Internet) and must be provided by a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency approved by the United States trustee or bankruptcy administrator. The clerk of the bankruptcy court has a list that you may consult of the approved budget and credit counseling agencies.
In addition, after filing a bankruptcy case, an individual debtor generally must complete a financial management instructional course before he or she can receive a discharge. The clerk also has a list of approved financial management instructional courses.
2. The Four Chapters of the Bankruptcy Code Available to Individual Consumer Debtors:
Chapter 7: Liquidation ($220 filing fee, $39 administrative fee, $15 trustee surcharge: Total Court Fee $274 DOES NOT INCLUDE ATTORNEY FEE)
- Chapter 7 is designed for debtors in financial difficulty who do not have the ability to pay their existing debts. Debtors whose debts are primarily consumer debts are subject to a “means test” designed to determine whether the case should be permitted to proceed under chapter 7. If your income is greater than the median income for your state of residence and family size, in some cases, creditors have the right to file a motion requesting that the court dismiss your case under § 707(b) of the Code. It is up to the court to decide whether the case should be dismissed.
- Under chapter 7, you may claim certain of your property as exempt under governing law. A trustee may have the right to take possession of and sell the remaining property that is not exempt and use the sale proceeds to pay your creditors.
- The purpose of filing a chapter 7 case is to obtain a discharge of your existing debts. If, however, you are found to have committed certain kinds of improper conduct described in the Bankruptcy Code, the court may deny your discharge and, if it does, the purpose for which you filed the bankruptcy petition will be defeated.
- Even if you receive a general discharge, some particular debts are not discharged under the law. Therefore, you may still be responsible for most taxes and student loans; debts incurred to pay nondischargeable taxes; domestic support and property settlement obligations; most fines, penalties, forfeitures, and criminal restitution obligations; certain debts which are not properly listed in your bankruptcy papers; and debts for death or personal injury caused by operating a motor vehicle, vessel, or aircraft while intoxicated from alcohol or drugs. Also, if a creditor can prove that a debt arose from fraud, breach of fiduciary duty, or theft, or from a willful and malicious injury, the bankruptcy court may determine that the debt is not discharged.
Chapter 13: Repayment of All or Part of the Debts of an Individual with Regular Income ($150 filing fee, $39 administrative fee: Total Court Fee $189 DOES NOT INCLUDE ATTORNEY FEE)
- Chapter 13 is designed for individuals with regular income who would like to pay all or part of their debts in installments over a period of time. You are only eligible for chapter 13 if your debts do not exceed certain dollar amounts set forth in the Bankruptcy Code.
- Under chapter 13, you must file with the court a plan to repay your creditors all or part of the money that you owe them, using your future earnings. The period allowed by the court to repay your debts may be three years or five years, depending upon your income and other factors. The court must approve your plan before it can take effect.
- After completing the payments under your plan, your debts are generally discharged except for domestic support obligations; most student loans; certain taxes; most criminal fines and restitution obligations; certain debts which are not properly listed in your bankruptcy papers; certain debts for acts that caused death or personal injury; and certain long term secured obligations.
Chapter 11: Reorganization ($1000 filing fee, $39 administrative fee: Total Court Fee $1039 DOES NOT INCLUDE ATTORNEY FEE)
Chapter 11 is designed for the reorganization of a business but is also available to consumer debtors. Its provisions are quite complicated, and any decision by an individual to file a chapter 11 petition should be reviewed with an attorney.
Chapter 12: Family Farmer or Fisherman ($200 filing fee, $39 administrative fee: Total Court Fee $239 DOES NOT INCLUDE ATTORNEY FEE)
Chapter 12 is designed to permit family farmers and fishermen to repay their debts over a period of time from future earnings and is similar to chapter 13. The eligibility requirements are restrictive, limiting its use to those whose income arises primarily from a family-owned farm or commercial fishing operation.
3. Bankruptcy Crimes and Availability of Bankruptcy Papers to Law Enforcement Officials
A person who knowingly and fraudulently conceals assets or makes a false oath or statement under penalty of perjury, either orally or in writing, in connection with a bankruptcy case is subject to a fine, imprisonment, or both. All information supplied by a debtor in connection with a bankruptcy case is subject to examination by the Attorney General acting through the Office of the United States Trustee, the Office of the United States Attorney, and other components and employees of the Department of Justice.
WARNING: Section 521(a)(1) of the Bankruptcy Code requires that you promptly file detailed information regarding your creditors, assets, liabilities, income, expenses and general financial condition. Your bankruptcy case may be dismissed if this information is not filed with the court within the time deadlines set by the Bankruptcy Code, the Bankruptcy Rules, and the local rules of the court.
Separate Disclosure Required by Section 527 of the Bankruptcy Code as Amended
IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT BANKRUPTCY ASSISTANCE SERVICES FROM AN ATTORNEY
(Note: This form is mandated by statute. It may or may not correctly explain the law.)
If you decide to seek bankruptcy relief, you can represent yourself, you can hire an attorney to represent you, or you can get help in some localities from a bankruptcy petition preparer who is not an attorney. The law requires an attorney or bankruptcy petition preparer to give you a written contract specifying what the attorney or bankruptcy petition preparer will do for you and how much it will cost. Ask to see the contract before you hire anyone.
The following information explains what must be done in a routine bankruptcy case to help you evaluate how much service you need. Before filing a bankruptcy case, either you or your attorney should analyze your eligibility for different forms of debt relief available under the Bankruptcy Code and decide which form of relief is most likely to be beneficial for you. Be sure you understand the relief you can obtain and its limitations. To file a bankruptcy case, documents (Petition, Schedules, Statement of Financial Affairs, and in some cases a Statement of Intention) must be prepared correctly and filed with the bankruptcy court. You will have to pay a filing fee to the bankruptcy court. Once your case starts, you must attend the required first meeting of creditors, where you may be questioned by a court official called a “trustee” and by creditors.
If you choose to file a Chapter 7 case, you may be asked by a creditor to reaffirm a debt. You may want help deciding whether to do so. A creditor is not permitted to coerce you into reaffirming your debts.
If you choose to file a Chapter 13 case, in which you repay your creditors what you can afford over 3 to 5 years, you may also want help preparing your Chapter 13 plan and with the confirmation hearing on your plan, which will be before a bankruptcy judge.
If you select another type of relief under the Bankruptcy Code other than Chapter 7 or Chapter 13, you should consult someone familiar with that type of relief.
Your bankruptcy case may also involve litigation. You are generally permitted to represent yourself in litigation in bankruptcy court, but only lawyers, not bankruptcy petition preparers, can give you legal advice.
Information to the Assisted Person (Debtor) on How to Provide
All Information Required by Section 521
Section 521 of the Code sets out the Debtor’s duties related to the filing of a bankruptcy case. A copy of the section is attached to this writing.
As you fill out these schedules and statement of affairs, you should keep the following in mind:
- Completing the income and expense pages accurately and completely is critical.
- To compile your income, refer to recent pay stubs and last year’s income tax returns. Accounting for overtime, investment dividends, and other earnings is necessary.
- People usually pay cash for many items, such as groceries. Review your monthly expense payments and make a best estimate on cash expenditures. If you pay insurance annually, calculate the monthly cost. Attached are IRS expense allowances for the area in which you live. If your expenses exceed these, we will have to review them and perhaps make adjustments.
- When you value property you own, consider prices in the neighborhood for housing, in newspapers and car lots for automobiles, and what you would pay for furniture and clothes at a business selling such goods.
- If you have an item of special value, an appraisal may be necessary.
- When listing creditors, collect current bills and use that information for mailing addresses and balances due.
- Under the law of this state, or federal bankruptcy law, certain property may be exempt and may be retained. Attached is a copy of the state list of exemptions and also a list of property that may be exempt under federal law. Neither list is all-inclusive. If a seller has a lien on exempt property, the lien may be avoidable or you may have to pay for the property in order to keep it. After you have prepared these lists, we can review them and decide what property qualifies as exempt.